MPPT Based Charge Controller Using Pic Microcontroller; MPPT (maximum power point tracking) based charge controller using pic microcontroller is a controller that could be used for charging the batteries after tracking maximum power from solar panel. As we know, the demand of energy is increasing day by day as well as the nonrenewable energy resources such as hydro, coal and oil are also depleting day by day, beside this these resources are not environmental friendly therefore we must need to search the renewable energy resources such as solar, wind soil, trees and grass to full fill the energy demand. There are many MPPT charging techniques are available. I have also posted a project smart charge controller based on PWM you may also like to check it. you can also check 15 ampere solar charge controller.
These resources are environmental friendly but to track the maximum power from these resources is also a biggest problem and here we will only talk about solar panel. For tracking maximum power form solar panel, different types of charge controllers are currently used in market such as PWM (pulse width modulation) and MPPT charge controller. If talk about PWM charge controller then it is less expensive but its efficiency is so much low and does work properly during changed environmental condition. Against that, the MPPT charge controller has good efficiency and work properly during changed environmental condition but its cost is so much high not every normal user could afford easily.
So many companies have designed this charge controller with the help of different controller but that are not more efficient. Here we have designed a MPPT charge controller that is called a MPPT based charge controller using pic microcontroller with the help of pic 18F452, IRF 9540 MOSFET driver and load control unit. This MPPT based charge controller using pic microcontroller is less costly, more efficient, more precise and more reliable as compared to other charge controllers. The block diagram of this MPPT based charge controller using pic microcontroller is shown is figure 1
Here is block diagram of MPPT based charge controller using pic microcontroller with all their essential components,
Figure 1 MPPT based Charge Controller Using Pic Microcontroller
Here is the component list with short detail of MPPT based charge controller,
Voltage Sensor: In this MPPT based charge controller using pic microcontroller, the voltage sensor is used for sensing the solar panel and battery voltages. This sensor has been made with voltage divider circuit.
Current Sensor: In this MPPT based charge controller, the current sensor is used for sensing the load and solar panel current for calculating the power. Here we have used hall effect sensor ACS 712-20A for this purpose.
Temperature Sensor: In this MPPT based charge controller, the temperature sensor is used for sensing the room and battery temperature. Here we have used LM 35 temperature sensor for this purpose, which is calibrated for -55Co to +150Co range.
Solar Panel: In this MPPT based charge controller, the solar panel is so much necessary in this controller because the maximum power point is tracked of this solar panel for charging the battery and power on the output load. Different types of solar panels are available in market which have different characteristics.
pic Microcontroller: In this MPPT based charge controller, the pic 18F452 has been used for the intelligent control of this charge controller. It is 40 pins integrated circuit IC, which is programmed in c language with the help of mikro/c software. It is powered up with 5V dc and is interfaced with solar panel, battery, load controller and LCD display.
LCD Display: In this MPPT based charge controller, LCD display is used for displaying current, voltage, power, temperature and energy of solar panel. It is interfaced with microcontroller and is powered up with 5V dc.
IRF 9540: IRF 9540 is semiconductor switch which is used in this controller for high frequency switching. Because this controller consists of buck boost converter therefore the IRF 9540 is used for buck boost purposes.
Circuit diagram of MPPT bases solar charge controller is given below:
This MPPT based charge controller using pic microcontroller works in three stages bulk, absorption and float. In bulk stage, the preset amount of current is fed into the battery and in this stage, there would be no change in PWM of controller. When the battery is being charged up then voltage across the battery increases gradually till the voltage has reached at its preset value of voltage such as 14 or 12 then PWM of this controller begins to work for maintaining this voltage and this stage is called absorption stage. During this stage, the current of battery is taping down as well as battery has full charged. This stage when battery has full charged is called float stage. Similarly, when solar panel relates to controller then this controller checks the battery and solar panel voltage.
If battery voltage is less than solar panel voltage then it starts to charge the battery means this is bulk stage. This controller consists of buck boost converter, when panel voltage is greater than 14V then it bucks the voltage and boost the current. Because the current has boosted therefore the battery would charge quickly almost 1 hr. Similarly, when solar panel current is greater than battery charging current then this controller bucks the current and boost the voltage, the battery would charge again quickly. In both stages, this controller gives the constant 14V to battery therefore this charge controller is more efficient than PWM charge controller and work in every environmental condition. This controller also consists of load control unit for prevent the battery from deep discharging.
Applications and Advantages of MPPT Based Charge Controller Using Pic Microcontroller:
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