How transformer works ?

How transformer works ? It is a static device which convert electrical power from one circuit to another without making any change in frequency. It is used to step up and step down voltage in any circuit. If it step up the voltage, current will reduce. similarly if transformer step down the voltage in circuit, current will increase.

Transformer works on the principle of mutual induction linked with magnetic flux through core. It consists of two inductive coils. Theses coils are electrically insulated from each other. But linked with each other magnetically through low reluctance path of core. Basic circuit diagram of transformer is shown below :

Both coils are linked with each other through mutual induction. If one coil is connected with alternating voltage source, alternating flux produce in ¬†laminated core. This alternating flux maximum part links with other coil which is not connected to alternating voltage source. Accroding to farady’s law, due to flux linkage through mutual induction e.m.f induced in second coil. If second coil connects with any load, current will start flowing in load. In this way electrical energy transfer from one coil to another coil through mutual induction without any electrical connection betweeen two coils.


Coil which coonects to alternating voltage source is called primary winding or primary coil. Other coil which connect to load is secondary winding or secondary coil. It is also shown in above circuit diagram.

So It transfer electrical enery from one circuit to another without making change in frequency. It works on the principle of electromegnetic mutual induction.It step up or step down alternating voltage. Transformer working principle also used n motors, generators and control devices. The transformer which converts low voltage into high voltage is called step up transfromer. The transformer which converts high voltage into low voltage is called step down transformer.

It is also called static device. Because it have not rotating part. Its maintaince is easy. Because it have no rotating part. It can be easily step up voltage to maximum value as compared to other machines due to its high insulation methods. Insulations methods are discussed in separate article. There are many parts of transformer. Its parts also depend on type of transformer. For example disrtibution transformer may have less parts than power transformers.

So in this article you learn how transformer works ? What is its principle? Kindly share this article with others also. The more  you share , more you gain.

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