Embedded Systems Applications in Automobiles: In today’s article, we are going to discuss applications of embedded systems in automobiles. Embedded Systems have brought revolution in our lives. Everything around us is based on technology and is computerized. We find a lot of examples of embedded systems in our daily life like Mobile Phones, ATMS, Washing Machines, Hairs Curling Rods, Calculators, and TV etc. You are much familiar with the embedded system. Embedded systems also have many applications in the medical field. An Embedded System is a sort of computer system that contains both hardware and software and is designed in such a way that it performs some specific task. The microcontroller is the heart of Embedded Systems that controls all the functions. Nowadays, the mechanical system in automobiles is being replaced with an electronic system. You can check main components of embedded systems.
Applications of Embedded Systems have been increased in Automobile Industry.
An Introduction to Automobiles
Today, there are a large number of Automobile Industries that are manufacturing buses, cars, bikes etc. India contains large automobile industries and has best automobile markets. If we look back in the past, only rich people used to have their own vehicles. But now, mediocre are also involved in buying bikes and cars. India’s government supports it in the manufacturing of three wheeler, two wheeler and passenger vehicles.In 1968, ever the first automobile using the embedded systems, Volkswagen was invented.
Embedded System in Automobiles
Embedded systems are extensively used in Automobile industry. Embedded Systems have taken total control on automobiles. From small wiper controls to large and complicated anti-lock brake controls, everything in automobiles is under control of Embedded System. Electronic Control Units ECU is being used in automobiles. ECU consist of microcontroller and digital signal processors. Mercedes, BMW cars and other lavish vehicles make use of a variety of controllers used in Embedded Systems.
Usually, the embedded systems used in vehicle include
- Black box
- Drive by wire
- Adaptive cruise control
- Anti-lock braking system
- Automatic parking
- Satellite radio
- Tyre pressure monitor
- Traction control
- In-vehicle entertainment system
- Navigational Systems
- Night vision
- Backup collision sensors
- Heads up display
- Emission control
- Climate control
Here we have details of few of Embedded Systems used in Automobiles. Have a look.
Embedded Air Bag System
Air Bag is a protection device that provides safety against a head-on crash. It is for the individuals sitting in the front. The microcontroller is the brain of the system and system works on the commands given by microcontroller. Power to the controller is given by a battery. In the case of a baby accident, the sensor detects it and the controller operates the Airbag with the help of alternator.
Anti-Lock Brake System
This is also a very good example of Embedded Systems in automobile industry.Anti-lock brake system is an embedded system used in a car whose main function is to prevent the car getting out of control when the road is slippery. This system enables good contact of the wheel with the road.
Main Parts of Anti-Lock Brake System include
- Valves: Valves are present at the brake line of the brakes in the vehicle. These valves are located at three different positions. At first location, the valve is opened so that it passes pressure from the cylinder to the brakes. If we talk about the second location, the valve is kept closed to reduce the pressure reaching and so that the drivers don’t have to pull the brakes hard. At the third location, the pressure is released through these valves from the brakes.
- Speed sensors: As the names suggest, speed sensors sense the speed. They give information about deceleration and acceleration.
- Controller: Controller is used to controlling the valves and sensors.
- Pump: Pump is used to give pressure to the brakes when the valve gets released.
Working Principle of Anti-Lock Brake System
An Electronic Control Unit examines the motion of the wheels. When the speed of the wheel gets slower, the speed sensors allow the valve to decrease pressure to the brake and in this way the speed of the wheel increases. Conversely, if the speed of the wheel gets faster, a pressure to the brake is increased and in turn speed of the wheel is decreased.
Embedded systems Navigation System
Embedded Navigation System using GPS is the major advancement in Automobile Industry. The basic parts of the Navigation System include a gyroscope, embedded circuitry with GPS receiver, a DVD-ROM, a display system and main controller.Here we have a picture showing parts of an Embedded Navigation System.
Working Principle of Navigation System
The latitude and longitude values of current are received by GPS receiver. The longitude and latitude values are compared with an already stored map. Gyroscope along with other sensors is used to provide direction of road and speed. All the data is collected by a controller which allows the display screen to display the map of the route. In this way, you can easily reach your destination.
- Drive by Wire: This Embedded System is introducing electronic systems in vehicles making use of Human Machine Interfaces and actuators. These electronic systems are used in place of mechanical systems and are replacing components like steering column, coolers, pumps, hoses, vacuum servos, intermediate shaft, master cylinders and belts
- Satellite Radio: Then we have a radio satellite that provides satellite broadcast to automobiles. You can get it with a subscription.
Embedded systems based Adaptive Cruise Control
Adaptive Cruise Control technology enables cars to maintain sufficient distance from other cars during busy roads. It also allows the driver to set certain distance and speed of his vehicle. When traffic is high, using moderate Brakes, Adaptive Cruise Control alters the speed of the vehicle. Microwave Radar Unit or Laser Transceiver is present at the front of cars. It detects and gives information about distance and speed of other vehicles in the path of the car.
Embedded systems based Rain-Sensing System
It is another type of embedded system used in automobiles. It is used for sensing rain and responding to it. At front glass of the car, an optical sensor is provided at an angle so that it emits sufficient amount of infrared light. It reflects light when the glass screen is either wet or dirty. The light that is reflected into the sensor examines the speed and frequency of wiper used to clean the screen.