IOT Based ICU Patient Monitoring System: IOT (Internet of Things) based ICU (Intensive Care Unit) patient monitoring system is a system, which measures the patient blood pressure, heart beat rate and temperature constantly who is admit in ICU room. After measuring, this system also sends this data to dedicated website through IOT system. If we see in our society then we can easily analyze, that our hospitals are full of patients. For look after these patients, so much hospital staff means doctors or nurses are required which is not possible in every hospital. Beside this, look after of individual patient specially which are admit in ICU room whose temperature and blood pressure measurement reading is so much necessary in every single moment is also a big problem. On concentrating these problems here we have proposed a system that is a called IOT based ICU patient monitoring system with help of pic microcontroller 18F452, temperature and humidity sensor, blood pressure sensor, IOT system and LCD display. This system would be measure automatically the patient body temperature, blood pressure and send this measured data on dedicated website. Where every respective doctor could easily see their respective patient data all the time from any place. This system is less costly and more precise as compared to the other systems.
Block Diagram of the IOT based ICU Patient Monitoring System
Figure 1 Block Diagram of the IOT based ICU Patient Monitoring System
Components List with Detail of the IOT Based ICU Patient Monitoring System
Transformer: In this IOT based ICU patient monitoring system, transformer is only used for step down the ac voltages. It steps down the 220V ac into 12V and works on the principle of mutual induction.
Bridge Rectifier: In this IOT based ICU patient monitoring system, the bridge rectifier is only used for converting the ac voltages into dc voltages and it consists of four diodes.
Blocking Diode: In this system, blocking diode is only used for blocking the reverse polarity current which produced during switching.
Voltage Regulator: In this IOT based ICU patient monitoring system, the voltage regulator is used for regulating the 12V dc voltages into 5V dc voltages. Here LM 7805 IC has been for this purpose.
LCD Display: In this IOT based ICU patient monitoring system, the LCD display is used for displaying the patient body temperature and blood pressure. It is a 16 pins LCD display which is powered up with 5V dc supply. Here it is interfaced with microcontroller.
Microcontroller: In this IOT based ICU patient monitoring system, pic 18F452 microcontroller is used for the intelligent control of this system in other words it is main the controller of this system. It is 40 pins integrated circuit IC and is programmed in c language with help of mikro/c software. It is powered up with 5V dc supply and is interfaced with temperature and humidity sensor, blood pressure sensor, IOT system and LCD display.
Temperature and Humidity Sensor: In this IOT based ICU patient monitoring system, temperature and humidity sensor is used for measuring the patient body temperature with humidity level in surrounding environment. It is a 3pins integrated circuit module, for using this pin 1is configured as VCC pin, pin 2 is configured as data pin and pin 3 is configured as an output pin. It is powered up with 5V dc supply and is interfaced with microcontroller.
Blood Pressure Sensor: In this IOT based ICU patient monitoring system, blood pressure sensor is used for sensing the patient blood pressure. Here for blood pressure measurements aneroid device is used which depends on oscillations. This device consists of artery wall, vibration is produced in this artery wall due to systolic and diastolic pressures when blood is flowing through this wall. This vibration is transduced into electrical signal for appropriate measurements. It is interfaced with microcontroller.
IOT system: In this IOT based ICU patient monitoring system, the IOT system is used for sending the information data such as temperature or blood pressure to dedicated website. This system consists of WIFI module, which is interfaced with microcontroller and is powered up with 5V dc supply.
Working Principle of IOT Based ICU Patient Monitoring System
This IOT based ICU patient monitoring system works on the principle of monitoring patient body temperature and blood pressure. When this system is installed in ICU room then blood pressure device cuff is inflated permanently around the patient arm or wrist and temperature sensor is also attached with patient body. Temperature sensor is the resistance base sensor whose resistance is changed by changing the patient body temperature, Similarly the blood pressure sensor is the oscillation or vibration base sensor whose value is transduced into electrical signal. when blood oscillation or vibration is changed then this electrical signal value is changed. Both sensors measurements values are received by the pic controller which is the main or intelligent controller of this whole system. After receiving these values, the microcontroller displays these values on LCD display as well as these values are also send toward IOT system using programmed algorithms. The IOT system which consists of Wi-Fi module, which displays these values on doctors dedicated website using Wi-Fi sources and here for this purpose Gecko website has been used. Using this website, the doctor’s society can easily know the blood pressure and temperature of their respective patient any time form anywhere.
Applications and Advantages of IOT Based ICU Patient Monitoring System
- This IOT based ICU patient monitoring system could be installed in hospitals ICU room for measuring the temperature and blood pressure of patient body constantly.
- This system could be also used for measuring the heart beat rate of patient body.
- By using this system, the man power in hospitals could be reduced.
- By using system, the patient body temperature and blood pressure could be see any time from anywhere.
- This system is less costly, more compact and more precise as compared to other systems