What is Single layer PCB? The word PCB stands for printed circuit board and single layer PCB is such type of a PCB which is printed only from one side, means PCB sheet is printed form one side with a conductive material, on other side electronics components are connected electrically and fixed mechanically. Before introducing PCB sheet point to point construction method was used to make a circuit which was so much difficult and was take more time with space to make a circuit. First time single sided PCB was made in 1950 and still have been using in market in a bulk quantity. Different materials have been using for making single layer PCB such as glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin with copper foil and paper reinforced phenolic resin with copper foil etc. A simple single Layer PCB is shown in figure 1
Figure 1 A Simple Single Layer PCB
Construction of Single Layer PCB
In the begging all types of PCBs are designed manually with the help of a hand but currently all these are designed on a computer with the help of different software’s such as ORCADS, EAGLE, PROTEL, Easy EDA, and CAD etc. Here fist we will explain the manual process for making the PCB board. For making manually PCB board first design the layout of the circuit on computer software, print this on a simple page then ironed this page on a PCB sheet. When the whole circuit is ironed on a PCB sheet then this PCB sheet is passed through etched process. Because the top layer of PCB sheet is fully made with conductive material such as copper therefore when it is etched with the help of ferric chloride then this layer is dissolved in ferric chloride except the printed circuit layer. After etching now this PCB sheet is ready to insert the electronic components. But before inserting components wholes are made with a drill machine. This was the manually process for making a PCB board but now so many PCB machines are available in market whose do all this process automatically. In these machines circuit layout is made with the help of software and then just insert the PCB sheet and component in this machine. It gives you your desired design circuit. Now, to make the PCB circuit have become so much easy.
Types of Single Layer PCB
Some single layer PCBs are currently in used and here we shell explain them with respect to its manufacturing material.
- Single Layer Rigid PCBs: It is the type of a single layer PCB which is made up a rigid material such as fiber glass. These PCBs are inflexible and prevent the circuit from bending and breaking. Currently these are used in different types of devices such as in calculators and power supplies etc. A single layer rigid PCB is shown is figure above
- Single Layer Flexible PCBs: It is the type of a single layer PCB which is mode out a flexible material instead of a rigid material and for this purpose plastic materials are used. It has so many advantages over single layer rigid pub but it fabrication cost is so much high. A single layer flexible PCB is shown in figure 3
Figure 3 A Single Layer Flexible PCB
- Single Layer High Frequency PCBs: It is the type of a single layer PCBs which is used for high frequency circuits normally in giga hertz. These PCBs are made out a Teflon or polyphenylene oxide (PPO) material. During choosing high frequency single layer PCB many aspects are keep in mind such as dielectric loss, thermal expansion and water absorption etc. A simple high frequency single layer PCB is shown in figure 4
Figure 4 A Single Layer High Frequency PCB
- Single Layer Rigid Flex PCBs: It the type of single layer PCBs which is made out by the combination of plastic and fiber glass. Both materials are combined together into single layer. It has so many advantages over single layer rigid and flexible PCB such as it reduces the weight and size of overall PCB.
- Single Layer Aluminum Backed PCBs: It the type of single layer PCB which is made out with aluminum material substrate. The design of this PCB is almost same as copper backed PCB but only difference is that, in these PCBs aluminum substrate is used instead of copper. Aluminum backed is used with thermal insulating material for transferring the heat from insulating material to back.
Application of Single Layer PCBs
As we know the single layer PCBs are very simple, but these are still in used in so much complex devices. Some of which are listed below.
- These are used in digital cameras circuits.
- These are used in radio and stereo equipment’s circuits.
- These are used in photo copy and printer machines circuits.
- These are used in digital calculators which are only consist of a single PCB.
- These are used in vending machine circuits.
- These are used in switching relays which are mostly used in automotive and power industry.
- These are used in solid state drives which are mostly used in power industry.
- These are used in coffee making machine circuits.
- These are used in digital microwave oven timer circuits to switch on or off the oven timely.
- These are used in LED lighting circuits for making a power light circuit.
- These are used in packing machines which are mostly used in packing industry.
- These are used in timing circuits for switch on or off the machine timely.
- These are used in sensors product circuits.
- These are used in surveillance machine circuits.
- These are used in digital and analogue power supplies circuits.
Advantages of Single Layer PCB
Single layer PCBs have so many advantages, so which are listed below.
- Because single layer PCB is very simple therefore it is very easy to design and has lower probability to make incorrect design .
- It is less costly specially when it is ordered in bulk quantity as compared to other types of PCBs
- Because single layer PCB, only consists of a single layer therefor its drilling, soldering, de-soldering and components inserting process is very easy.
- Because its components are installed at only one side therefore it required lower jumper to compensate the circuit.
- Because its circuit is very simple therefore any one can easily understand the circuit.
- Its design circuit take a very short time to make a simple design.
- Because its components are installed at some distance form each other therefore there is less probability of short circuiting and producing noise
- Less time is required for fault tracing and repairing of this single layer PCB.
- It is more reliable and efficient as compared to other types of PCBs.
- It is easy to install.